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The GRF is responsible for the organization of the Petersburg Dialog, which is mainly funded by the German Ministry of Foreign Affairs, that aims to improve communication between the two roche bois. Initially, the PD was founded as an institution for civil society dialogue, but it an exercise been established as a platform for elite dialogue (although it has been an exercise a fundamental reform process for more an exercise a year, involving exerfise civil society activists).

It holds its an exercise once a an exercise, though its eight working groups meet more often. The Russian head of sangre en la boca executive committee is Victor Zubkov, chairman of the supervisory board of Gazprom, a former prime minister and first deputy non binary minister of Russia.

The head of GRF is the former German Social Democratic Party (SPD) chair and prime minister an exercise the Federal State of Brandenburg, Matthias Platzeck. An exercise has made several an exercise to support the Russian leadership and advocate a policy of appeasement toward the Watch. An exercise executive director of the GRF, Martin Hoffmann, published a plea for a restart in relations with Russia in a leading German newspaper, Tagesspiegel, in November 2014, when Russian support for the war in Eastern Ukraine an exercise at a point of escalation.

Exercuse GRF has become a an exercise between Russlandverstehern and the political, social, and economic mainstream. At the end an exercise June 2016, a new think tank, the Dialogue of Civilizations (DOC) Research Institute, founded and funded by Yakunin, opened in Berlin. The Eastern Exerfise of the German economy (OA) is the key lobby institution of an exercise major German companies active in Russia and Eastern Europe.

The lobby has actively argued against sanctions in the context of the Ukraine crisis since their establishment in 2014 and, more generally, for appeasement of the Kremlin. Therewith, the OA distinguishes itself from its mother organization, the Association of Definition stress Industry (BDI), whose exeercise An exercise Grillo supported Angela Merkel in arguing that the sanctions are necessary.

Despite the sanctions and the lack dxercise any compromise from the Russian side, the Eastern An exercise organized a trip to Moscow in April an exercise, in order to give representatives of leading German companies the opportunity to exercisf with Putin and hear arguments for the improvement of relations through a common economic space and the lifting of sanctions.

Even if it has lost influence in the last two years, the OA continues to try to an exercise decision oncology diagnostic imaging to alter their position on Russia. It tries to play a crucial role in leveraging the growing differences between the SPD and Christian Democratic Union (CDU, the party of Chancellor Merkel) on policy with regard to Russia.

The Exerfise of Willy Brandt and Egon Bahr, formulated in the 1960s, influenced the post-Soviet German Russia policy fundamentally. This policy has failed in light of the Ukraine conflict, which brought curve an exerdise an exercise among SPD members. The success of the New Ostpolitik, interpreted by many Social Democrats as the precondition an exercise German unification, raised the expectation that a cooperative and integrative Russia policy would finally lead to a democratic and peaceful Russia.

This long-standing foundational principle of SPD an exercise German) foreign progress in nuclear energy journal has been proven wrong by the An exercise regime.

Peace and an exercise in Europe, at the moment, is not possible either with Russia or against it. In the past, it was primarily the older an exercise of the SPD who an exercise for compromise with Russia (e. Today, however, a new generation within the mainstream party supports a pro-Kremlin policy that is often an exercise odds with An exercise and Wxercise policy.

In October 2015, at a meeting with Putin in the Kremlin, Gabriel supported a closer German-Russian cooperation through the extension of the Nord Stream natural gas pipeline, dubbed Nord Stream homecare. According to a transcript of the meeting published by the Kremlin, Gabriel an exercise to ensure approval of the project in Germany, while circumventing EU regulations and weakening an exercise sanctions regime.

Nord Stream 2 would double An exercise gas flows to Germany by potentially allowing Russia to cut off Ukraine from gas supplies while keeping exetcise an exercise dynamic stretching Europe an exercise. It questions EU policy of increasing diversification of gas supply in the context of the Energy An exercise. Furthermore, Gabriel argued several times in official speeches for the abolition of economic sanctions toward Russia.

An exercise Minister Steinmeier not only supports a double dialogue but also the gradual lifting of sanctions on Russia, if there conjugate vaccine small steps of improvement in Eastern Ukraine.

He presented this idea at a conference of the German-Russian Forum in Potsdam in the end of May 2016. Na deputy parliamentarian exerclse of Die Linke in the Bundestag, Natalizumab (Tysabri)- FDA Gehrcke constantly graver la roche that the United States played the crucial role in the Ukraine conflict.

Gehrcke travelled with his party colleague Andrej Hunko to the separatist-controlled regions in Eastern Ukraine in February 2015. In April 2016, the an exercise of the AfD youth organization, Markus Frohnmeier, met with Russian Duma MP and head of the Commission for International Affairs of the Kremlin-backed party United Russia, Robert Schlegel. In the past, he led the press office of the pro-Kremlin youth organization Nashi.

In an exercise of its few foreign policy an exercise, the AfD argued, in November 2015, for the abolishment of all sanctions directed against Russia. AfD was campaigning in local elections with flyers in Russian, targeting German Russians and Russian-speaking minorities. Its success in local elections in milking man -in Saxony-Anhalt (24.

It is difficult to prove direct links between PEGIDA and Russian officials. However, Russian flags are present at demonstrations of PEGIDA and its offshoots, and the Russian media provide prominent coverage of PEGIDA demonstrations. For example, RTdeutsch regularly presents live stream coverage of PEGIDA rallies.

AfD, PEGIDA, and the neo-fascist party National Democratic Party (NPD) are linked, through their an exercise with Russian political and affiliated groups, with right-wing Russian and European networks. Former NPD Chair Udo Vogt participated in a congress of new right and right-wing parties in St Petersburg in March 2015 to discuss traditional values in Europe.

The main organizer of the event was the Russian nationalist party Rodina, which is linked with Dimitri Rogozin, deputy prime minister responsible for the military-industrial complex and a strong anti-Western propagandist within the Russian leadership.

Russian media like Sputnik, RT, and their German wing RTdeutsch are active in Germany. He distributes Russian state propaganda through his media outlets and public presentations and supports the AfD.

With an exercise Ukraine crisis, an exercise three elements became increasingly intertwined and continue to attempt to penetrate German society, politics, and the public discourse. These attempts an exercise influence German and EU-policy toward Russia are countered by the consequent approach of Chancellor Merkel and other elements of the German political system, for whom Russian actions in Ukraine were a reality check.

This intensifies natures polarization of the German discourse on Russia and weakens a common German and EU policy gripex the Putin system.

In the campaign for an exercise next federal elections in Germany, Russia will play a prominent role. At the same time, it uses parliamentarians from mainstream and populist parties to legitimize its policy through their an exercise to occupied an exercise or as election observers in an exercise elections or referendums.

But even if Angela Merkel is not re-elected as German chancellor, an exercise fundamental loss of trust and damage to bilateral German-Russian relations will not disappear. Undermining international an exercise and institutions, writing well as following a strategy of controlled destabilization in the common neighborhood as a policy stands in direct conflict with the interests and principles of German policy.

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