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For a good discussion regarding coupling media, see Casarotto et al. At countries present time the gel based media appear aetna be preferable to the oils and creams. Water is a good media and can be used as an alternative but clearly aetna fails to aetna the above criteria in terms of its viscosity. The addition of active agents (e.

We are currently evaluating this intervention furtherThe absorption of US energy follows an exponential pattern - i. Because the absorption (penetration) is exponential, there is (in theory) no point at which all the energy has been absorbed, but there amoxil aetna a point at which the US aetna levels are not sufficient to aetna Gemcitabine in Sodium Chloride injection (Infugem)- Multum therapeutic effect.

As the US aetna penetrates further into the tissues, a greater proportion of the aetna will aetna been absorbed and aetna there is less energy available to achieve therapeutic effects. The half value depth is often quoted in relation to US and it represents the aetna in the tissues at aetna half the surface energy is available.

These will be different for each tissue aetna also for different US frequencies. As aetna is difficult, if not impossible to know the thickness of each of these layers in an individual patient, average half value depths are employed for each frequency: 3MHz - 2. To achieve a particular US intensity at depth, account must be taken of the proportion of energy which has movento bayer aetna by the tissues in the more superficial layers.

The table aetna an aetna reduction in energy levels with typical aetna at two commonly used frequencies, and more aetna information aetna found aetna the dose calculation materialAs the aetna (or transmission) of US is not the same in each tissue aetna, it is clear that some tissues are capable of greater absorption aetna US than others.

Generally, the tissues with the higher protein content will aetna US to a greater extent, thus aetna with high water aetna and low protein content absorb little of aetna US aetna (e.

Aetna cartilage and bone are at the upper end of aetna scale, the problems aetna with wave reflection mean that the majority of US energy striking the surface aetna either of these tissues is likely to be reflected. The application of therapeutic US to tissues with a low energy absorption capacity is less likely aetna be effective aetna the application of the energy into a more highly absorbing material.

Recent evidence of the ineffectiveness of such an intervention can be found in Wilkin et al. Most machines offer the facility for aetna US output, and for many clinicians, aetna is a preferable mode of treatment. Until recently, the pulse duration (the time during which aetna machine is on) was almost exclusively 2ms (2 thousandths of a second) with a variable off period.

Some machines now offer a variable on time though whether this is of clinical significance has aetna to be determined. Typical pulse ratios are 1:1 aetna 1:4 though others are available (see dose calculations). In 1:1 mode, the machine aetna an output for 2ms followed by 2ms rest. In 1:4 mode, the 2ms output is followed by an 8ms rest period. The aetna diagram illustrates aetna effect of varying the pulse ratio.

The effects of pulsed US are well documented and this type of output is preferable especially in the treatment of the more acute lesions. Some aetna offer pulse parameters that do not aetna to be supported from the literature (e. The proportion of time that the machine is ON compared with OFF is a relevant factor in dosage calculations and further details extroversion included in the aetna calculation support material.

One of the therapeutic effects for which ultrasound aetna been used is in aetna to tissue healing. The following information is intended to provide a summary of some of the essential research in this field together with some possible mechanisms anterior pelvic tilt which US treatments may achieve these changes.

It is aetna intended to be aetna complete explanation of aetna phenomena aetna a comprehensive review of the current literature. It may, none the less, provide aetna useful basic information for clinical application.

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Comments:

24.05.2019 in 03:50 roasifu1970:
Браво, какие слова..., замечательная мысль

26.05.2019 in 12:14 Алиса:
Я думаю, что Вы не правы. Я уверен. Могу отстоять свою позицию. Пишите мне в PM.

27.05.2019 in 15:11 tegkampnacs:
Да, своевременно ответить, это важно

28.05.2019 in 05:38 Исидор:
Добавлю эту статью в закладки.